4) B – Incorrect.
One concern about punishment is that it might suppress the fearful behavior such as growling, but does not address the underlying motivation. When pets exhibit fear and anxiety, the response of the veterinarian, staff and pet owner can further aggravate or lessen the pet's fear. Dogs are keen observers and quick learners, especially when the outcome is unpleasant. If the client is tense or worried, the fear can be heightened by their owner's response. Also, some clients harshly reprimand or punish fearful behaviors, which only serves to intensify the dog's fear and could even lead to defensive aggression.
So, you missed this one... Now you know. And if you want to learn more about behavior, you might be interested in our dvm360 behavior section.